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Meteorological Station
of the Lycée Classique de Diekirch [Luxembourg]  
http://meteo.lcd.lu          blog:  meteolcd.wordpress.com
Luxembourg's contributor to the WOUDC 

***live  CO2 emissions from electricity production***
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Local trends 1998 to 2022   


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COVID-19 Luxembourg

All the relevant data and graphs are on a special web page.
This chapter is closed, no updates anymore!

Important new paper (45 pages) by retired Prof. Richard LINDZEN (MIT) and William HAPPER (Princeton), both specialists in atmospheric physics: "Challenging Net Zero with Science". They conclude:
"The adoption of Net Zero is the rejection of overwhelming scientific evidence that there is no risk of catastrophic global warming caused by fossil fuels and CO2. Net Zero, then, violates the tenets of the scientific method that for more than 300 years has underpinned the advancement of western civilization."


Truly stunning TED talk of biologist Allan SAVORY "How to green the world's deserts..": use large herds of live-stock! This goes contrary to all the fashionable hysteria about abandoning meat to save the world... and there are many examples that Savory is right!
An outstanding talk!


Mark MILLS has a very unsettling presentation on the mineral demands needed for the wind/solar energy transition, and also the transition from thermal to electrical transportation. The magnitude of the minerals needed are mind-boggling (an EV car needs 2 times more minerals than a Diesel car).

The title is: The energy transition delusion: the inescapable mineral realities (Youtube, 46 min.)

I made a short analysis of the sunshine hours per day as given by our CM21 pyranometer (using Oliviéri's method to calculate sunshine from solar irradiance) and as measured directly by our vintage Haenni instrument (donated years ago by ASTA). The antique Haenni is ca 20% too low (not too bad!).
During 2022 we had a whooping 68 (CM21) or 66 (Haenni) days without sunshine... Solar photovoltaic enthusiasts beware!

Interesting and easy to read debate contra and pro a carbon tax:

Happer & Everett are against, Everett under very precise conditions is pro.

Happer & Everett give a sober diagnose of our putative CO2 driven climate problems.


Very interesting 1h50min interview of Prof. Lindzen by J.B.Peterson. The video has some annoying publicities, and is marred by a loss of sync between video and sound on the last parts: but what is said by Lindzen is exceptionally clear.

ALBEDO changes cause 2/3 of observed warming

New paper by Mingzu et al. in "Theoretical and Applied Climatology (Springer)" shows that 2/3 of the global warming during 2001 to 2018 is caused by natural changes in albedo (= mostly in cloud cover). Only 1/3 is caused by rising atmospheric CO2 levels (figure from paper, added text; calculations see my blog)

See also here. Read also this paper that shows that reduction in aerosols are mostly responsible for recent warming. Both paper  minimize (at different magnitudes) the role of CO2 increase.

Prof. Judith Curry has a very interesting contribution on her blog Climate etc. titled "Misperception and Amplification of Climate Risk". A catching paragraph: : "The problem here is not the climate change that has already happened, but rather “pre-traumatic stress syndrome”... Climate change pre-traumatic stress response is triggered by the continuing barrage in the media of extreme weather events that are worsened by “climate change,” the apocalyptic projections of future warming from unrealistic emissions scenario, and dystopian warnings of impacts from irresponsible politicians and leading journalists."


Very  interesting and readable paper by Prof. Gautam  Kalghatgi (ex. Uni Oxford) titled "Is it the end of combustion and combustion engine research? Should it be?"

He clearly shows how naive the concept of a quickly attainable net zero energy structure is. Forget the political or eco-blablabla and look at the numbers!

"Energy policy certainly needs to be informed by much more realism, honesty, and appreciation of broader global economic development, economic and  environmental needs"

New paper by Schernikau et al, suggesting to replace the LCOE metric (Levelized Cost Of Electricy) by a new FCOE (Full Cost of Electricity), the latter including all the stuff as storage or backup solutions needed by solar and wind electricity. They write that "Energy policy and investors should not favor wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, hydro, nuclear, gas, or coal but should support all energy systems in a manner which avoids energy shortage and energy poverty". How true!

Dr. Patrice Poyet, a French graduate from the Ecole des Mines and a PhD from University de Nice, has published an outstanding e-book of 640 pages which can be downloaded free of charge.
It is written for readers with a scientific background, and has received many compliments from distinguished scientists and professors.
He cites the professors Happer and Lindzen

reliable scientific theories come from validating theoretical predictions with observations, not consensus, peer review, government opinion or manipulated data

and this is the scientific spirit through this book from start to end.

Javier Vinõs & Andy May have a many-part sequence of papers on the "Sun-Climate-Effect... (the search for a solar signal)" at the Climate Etc. blog.
It is a demanding but very interesting reading, close to a book on climate physics. Recommended reading for all who want to dive deeper into the underlying physical phenomena.

The papers start on July 31, and the last part V has been published in August 28th.
Part I begins with a sentence from Landsberg: “Probably no subfield of meteorology has had as much effort devoted to it as the effects of solar variability on weather and climate. And none has had as little to show for the research labor.” Helmut E. Landsberg (1982)


Apocalyptic versus post-apocalyptic climate politics Prof. Judith Curry

One of the best comments I read during the last years... read it carefully!

"The build out of wind, solar and natural gas can fuel the transition, but this combination probably will not survive competition from new and better technologies that become available in the coming decades."

Global Optimal Climate Policies

Presentation given by Björn Lomborg for the "Stuttgarter Energiewende Tage" (in English).

"Smart policy requires less hype... Global Warming is often badly exaggerated...why do we get it so wrong on global warming: because we ignore adaptation!"

Read here (in German) an open letter of 20 German university professors asking to continue using the remaining nuclear facilities:

"Mit einseitiger Ausrichtung auf Sonne, Wind und Erdgas wurde Deutschland in Energienot manövriert... plädieren wir für den Weiterbetrieb der deutschen Kernkraftwerke als dritte Klimaschutzsäule neben Sonne und Wind...Wir fordern die sofortige Aufhebung der Atomausstiegs-Paragraphen"

Listen also this podcast (in German) with 2 nuclear experts.

On Sea-Level change in Costal Areas

Very interesting paper by V. Courtillot, JL Le Mouël et F. Lopez analyzing the multiple cycles buried in the changes of the sea level.

These cycles are mostly found also in the orbits and astronomic influenc of the Jovian Planets. The authors also show the huge difference found when data from tidal stations or satellites are used (the former being much lower).

The "natural" cycles can explain practically the history of sea-level change, without resorting to an anthropogenic cause.


Signals from the Planets, via the Sun to the Earth

This is an older (2013), but very interesting paper from J-E.Solheim, emeritus professor from the University of Tromsö (Norway), published in the journal "Pattern Recognition in Physics"
He writes: "The recent global warming may be interpreted as a rising branch of a millennium cycle, identified in ice cores and sediments and also recorded in history. This cycle peaks in the second half of this century, and then a 500 yr cooling trend will start. An expected solar grand minimum due to a 200 yr cycle will introduce additional cooling in the first part of this century."

One more of the numerous scientific papers ignored by the consensus and politicized climatology, and by our media and politicians.

(2nd link, if first not ok here.)

Click on small picture for what a simple 4 component model predicts for future global temperature:

Stuart Kirk, Global Head of Responsible Investments at HSBC has been fired for making a presentation at the Moral Money Europe conference of the FT, where he told the public that climate change was not a big risk for the banks, and that they should preferentially invest in adaptation technology than in mitigation politics. So far for what is called "free speech".

Watch this excellent 15 minute presentation here!

Other comments: https://nypost.com/2022/05/24/hsbc-banker-stuart-kirk-suspended-for-climate-change-remarks/


METALS for Clean Energy

Excellent report of KU Leuwen and Eurometaux on what will be needed in 2050 to reach Net Zero.

The necessary percentage increases are mind boggling!
Read here!


Watch this presentation by Tom Gallagher "Lessons from Paleoclimatology...": a sober and easy to follow voyage into the past 66 millions of Earth's climate.
Some conclusions: "...in the Holocene there is nothing unusual about our current rate of warming...embrace the warmer, humid, CO2 fertilized times now..Prepare for more glaciation ahead!"

Read here a discussion in easy words from SEPP (original here)

The History of the LNT (Linear No Treshhold) theory of radioactive risk: watch this series of videos of the HPS debunking this almost 70 years old theory, which gathered momentum by fear, but also dishonesty and unscientific behavior. Dr. Calabrese is critical of LNT and says that hormesis is real for low dosis of radiation.
A report on the same subject (Reassessing Radiation Safety) is here.

Look also at www.radiationanswers.org for Q&A.


Prof. Ole HUMLUM latest analysis of the state of climate in 2021 is published. He looks not at what climate models predict, but what the observations tell us. He writes "...“A year ago, I warned that there was great risk in using computer modelling and immature science to make extraordinary claims. The empirical observations I have reviewed show very gentle warming and no evidence of a climate crisis.”
This 54 page report should be mandatory reading for everyone looking for a genuine and not biased discussion on what we know of the state of the global climate, of the changes of global temperatures, sea-level, ice-cover, hurricanes and other climate related phenomena.



Prof. Judith Curry (former Georgia Tech) has a very interesting article published in the March 2022 edition of "International Affairs Forum" Most contributors write in the usual alarmist or Zeitgeist manner, but Prof. Curry has "A Plan B for adressing climate change and the energy transition" (link to a version with  highlights by me; original version in her blog here): "...The dangers of manmade climate change have been confounded with natural weather and climate variability...The planet has been warming for more than a century.  So far, the world has done a decent job at adapting to this change.  The yields for many crops have doubled or even quadruped since 1960...To make progress on this, we need to disabuse ourselves of the hubris that we can control the Earth’s climate and prevent extreme weather events..."

Prof. Guus Berkhout (emeritus, Uni Delft) writes that "Experienced Engineers must take the lead in the Energy Transition" He stresses the importance of political decisions based on measurement data and not on theoretical models. Concerning climate action he asks:

  1. Is COreally the big culprit?

  2. Does massive wood burning really contribute to less global warming?

  3. Why does the output of ‘settled’ climate models not match real observations?

  4. Why do universities still go ahead with supporting green energy policies, while these policies will lead to severe poverty? Why did universities not make a plea for nuclear technology? Why was such a debate forbidden at COP26*?


Ruhnau and Qvist have published an interesting paper on the electrical storage requirements for Germany, assuming 100% renewable electricity production (no gas, no nuclear, state 2030). They find in their 35-years analysis that one should account for 12 weeks of energy scarcity in a year, and propose mostly hydrogen as a storage medium, with batteries playing a very small role; they ignore all the technical problems related to hydrogen storage, and probably under-estimate its cost. Including storage related losses, they find that during the 35 years there is one period where almost 3 month of storage would have been needed!
What makes one think again, is that they suggest vastly overbuilding wind and solar, and curtailing the excess power when needed. There is no reflection on the extra material consumption  for this excess capacity (which for instance needs 10 times more offshore wind than today!)

Read a critique of the R&Q paper here, and another discusssion here.

Blaming humans... largely a matter of faith!

Read this comment by Dr. Roy Spencer (UAH)... uncertainty about balance of outgoing/incoming radiation about 5-10 W/m2, to compare to presumed radiation forcing of human CO2 emissions of 1 W/m2.

"...most recent warming could be mostly natural.. and we would never know it"


R.C. Dickson
has written a very interesting 3 part essay "What every journalist and politician should know":

Part 1: The Scientific Process
Part 2: Numbers in Science
Part 3: Pathological Science

Read this, it is time well spent!

A very clear comment by Ian Aitken on the "97% consensus" saga that climate change is "predominantly" caused by human activity :  "Whilst there is almost total scientific consensus that climate change is ‘real’ and happening and that there has been some human-caused influence, there is no such scientific consensus over the extent of the human-caused influence and whether or not it could reasonably be described as ‘dangerous’, let alone a ‘crisis’."


Is the World ready for Good News on Climate? asks Roger Pielke (Uni. Boulder, Co.) in his discussion on his latest research, showing how many IPCC scenarios are possible and how many of its climate models get it wrong:

"...we have identified 71 of your 1,311 scenarios that reman plausible based only on what actually happened 2005 to 2020 and that number is cut in half, to 35, when we also consider the 2020 IEA projections to 2050." Link to paper here.

There is a new paper by Goode et al. published in Geophysical Research Letters on the Earthshine project, that since the late 1990's measures the Earth's albedo by the light reflected from the dark lunar portion: Earth's Albedo 1998-2017 as Measured from Earthshine.

The declining albedo is responsible for a radiative forcing of about 0.5 W/m2 during these 2 decades, similar to the 0.6 W/m2 attributed to increasing anthropogenic GHG emissions!

TRANSMUTEX is a new Swiss startup company that wants to solve the problem with existing nuclear waste with its TMX-Start reactor, and takes up an decade old idea of Prof. Carlo Rubbio: using a proton accelerator to produce an intense neutron beam that will convert Thorium and used nuclear waste into fissible U233, with only an absolute minimum of radioactive waste left. Read here!
Seeing how nuclear energy has many new starts is gratifying, and puts the silliness of countries allergic to nuclear power into perspective!



Multi-part comment in the BLOG on the problem of air quality and the different and often confusing multitude of defining the air quality index.

Read here parts 1, 2, 3, 4 and the last part 5.

Excellent and very short video from Prager online University with Prof. Richard Lindzen from MIT who tells the essentials in crystal clear words .

An absolute ***must view***!



1. A look at the Shape of Temperature Change over Time. Interesting blog comment at WUWT by Mark Fife concluding "In every 10-year average, 99.7% of the stations fall within 2.25° and -1.75° of their 1920 – 2011 average".

10. A real cool 12 minute video by Dr. David Evans "Climate change in 12 minutes". Peek also into this animated video by Dr. Roy Spencer.


Bill Gates, who said poor countries “desperately need cheap sources of energy now to fuel economic growth that lifts families out of poverty. They can’t afford today’s expensive clean energy solutions and we can’t expect them to wait for the technology to get cheaper.” - See more at: http://www.thegwpf.com/new-climate-change-battlefront-pits-tony-abbott-against-the-anti-coal-brigade/#sthash.J5szcsdQ.dpuf
Bill Gates, who said poor countries “desperately need cheap sources of energy now to fuel economic growth that lifts families out of poverty. They can’t afford today’s expensive clean energy solutions and we can’t expect them to wait for the technology to get cheaper.” - See more at: http://www.thegwpf.com/new-climate-change-battlefront-pits-tony-abbott-against-the-anti-coal-brigade/#sthash.J5szcsdQ.dpuf

The free iPhone applet meteoLCD has been discontinued!
(by former LCD student Benoìt Frisch, also available for Android devices))

James Lovelock: "They all talk, they pass laws, they do things, as if they knew what was happening. I don’t think anybody really knows what’s happening. They just guess. And a whole group of them meet together and encourage each other’s guesses." (link)

97. Words of the great physicist Freeman Dyson: "Unfortunately the global warming hysteria, as I see it, is driven by politics more than by science. If it happens that I am wrong and the climate experts are right, it is still true that the remedies are far worse than the disease that they claim to cure."

98. Words by the great French philosopher Pascal Bruckner: "All the foolishness of Bolshevism, Maoism, and Trotskyism are somehow reformulated exponentially in the name of saving the planet.
" (comments here and here)

99. R. Lindzen: "Future generations will wonder in bemused amazement that the early 21st century's developed world went into hysterical panic over a globally averaged temperature increase of a few tenths of a degree and, on the basis of gross exaggerations of highly uncertain computer projections combined into implausible chains of inference, proceeded to contemplate a roll-back of the industrial age"

 "Le doute est le commen-cement de la science ; qui ne doute de rien n'examine rien ; qui n'examine rien ne découvre rien ; qui ne découvre rien est aveugle et demeure aveugle".
Jean Chardin, 1686. Journal du voyage du chevalier Chardin en Perse.


Some say the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice.
From what I've tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire.
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great
And would suffice.
Fire and Ice, R. Frost, 1920

"The greatest challenge facing mankind is the challenge of distinguishing reality from fantasy, truth from propaganda."
Michael Crichton + 4Nov08
(best speeches here and here)
Josh cartoons

"Und denn, man muß das Wahre immer wiederholen, weil auch der Irrtum um uns her immer wieder gepredigt wird, und zwar nicht von einzelnen, sondern von der Masse. In Zeitungen und Enzyklopädien, auf Schulen und Universitäten, überall ist der Irrtum oben auf, und es ist ihm wohl und behaglich, im Gefühl der Majorität, die auf seiner Seite ist". Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1828.

A complete list (with links!) of all things caused by global warming! (video)



 is absolutely in-line with





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MeteoLCD specializes in UV radiation and Ozone related problems. It is the only UV measuring station and the only source of near-live UVB, UVA, CO2 and other data of Luxembourg.

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links to other sites of interest

Cours de Formation pour Exploitants de Solariums- Lehrgang für Solarienbetreiber (2008)

The data of MeteoLCD are used to compute the UV-Index published by several Luxembourg periodicals. A research project done in collaboration with the Radiation Protection Office of Luxembourg studies the general UV pattern and the relationship between UVB irradiance and tropospheric ozone concentrations. 

Head of the station:

Prof. Francis MASSEN, Physics Laboratory, retired
Lycée Classique de Diekirch
L-9233 DIEKIRCH ( francis.massen@education.lu)

Collaborators of the Lycée classique de Diekirch Prof. Mike ZIMMER
. Raoul THOLL

Collaborator of the Radiation Protection Office:

Dipl. Phys./ Ing. Nucl. Nico HARPES ...tel: (352) 247-85673 

  Benoît Frisch (IOS and Android meteoLCD apps)